Cramps may occur for a variety of reasons. A mineral imbalance may manifest in physical symptoms like cramps and is often resolved by magnesium supplementation. However, a balance of other minerals like sodium and potassium (electrolytes) along with adequate hydration could be contributors to cramping as well. In particular, a low sodium intake forces the kidneys to waste potassium, with in turn can make muscles more irritable and prone to cramping. This interrelationship among hydration, electrolytes, and minerals gets pretty complex, so we devoted a chapter to this topic in our book ‘The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance’.